March 2008 - Posts

  • XPO, LINQ and Distinct

    XPO, LINQ and Distinct

    In a recent forum post, Dusan Pupis mentioned that our LINQ support didn't currently include the Distinct extension method. I looked into this and I found a pretty complex situation that requires some explanation.

    First, in XPO 8.1.1, we do in fact support Distinct(), i.e. the overload that doesn't take any further parameters, in some situations. For my test application, I'm using the following code based on three standard persistent classes:

    XpoDefault.DataLayer = new SimpleDataLayer(
    new DataStoreLogger(
    new InMemoryDataStore(new DataSet( ), AutoCreateOption.SchemaOnly),

    using (UnitOfWork uow = new UnitOfWork( )) {
    Artist eltonJohn = new Artist(uow) { Name = "Elton John" };
    eltonJohn.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Tumbleweed Connection", Year = 1970 });
    eltonJohn.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player", Year = 1973 });
    eltonJohn.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Too Low for Zero", Year = 1983 });
    eltonJohn.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy", Year = 1975 });
    eltonJohn.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Caribou", Year = 1974 });

    Artist rollingStones = new Artist(uow) { Name = "The Rolling Stones" };
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Aftermath", Year = 1966 });
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Their Satanic Majesties' Request", Year = 1967 });
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Sticky Fingers", Year = 1971 });
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "It's Only Rock 'n' Roll", Year = 1974 });
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Exile on Main Street", Year = 1972 });
    rollingStones.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Sucking in the Seventies", Year = 1981 });

    Artist procolHarum = new Artist(uow) { Name = "Procol Harum" };
    procolHarum.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Procol Harum", Year = 1967 });

    Artist jethroTull = new Artist(uow) { Name = "Jethro Tull" };
    jethroTull.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Thick as a Brick", Year = 1972 });
    jethroTull.Albums.Add(new Album(uow) { Name = "Minstrel in the Gallery", Year = 1975 });

    new TestData(uow) { Val1 = "One", Val2 = "Two" }.Save( );
    new TestData(uow) { Val1 = "Three", Val2 = "Four" }.Save( );
    new TestData(uow) { Val1 = "Four", Val2 = "Two" }.Save( );
    new TestData(uow) { Val1 = "One", Val2 = "Two" }.Save( );

    uow.CommitChanges( );

    With this initialization, I can do a few things with Distinct. For example, I can find a distinct Album year like this:

    using (UnitOfWork uow = new UnitOfWork( )) {
    var albumYears =
    from album in new XPQuery(uow)
    select album.Year;

    ObjectDumper.Write(albumYears.Distinct( ));

    Since I'm using the logger in my data layer, I can see that the query is this:

    SelectData request with 1 queries:select('N0'.'Year') from('Album'.'N0') 
    where(IsNull('N0'.'GCRecord')) order() group('N0'.'Year') having() params() ;

    Along the same lines, I can also query more than one value, this time using the TestData objects:

    var testdata =
    from test in new XPQuery(uow)
    select new { Val1 = test.Val1, Val2 = test.Val2 };


    This creates the following query:

    SelectData request with 1 queries:select('N0'.'Val1','N0'.'Val2') from('TestData'.'N0') 
    where(IsNull('N0'.'GCRecord')) order() group('N0'.'Val1','N0'.'Val2') having() params() ;

    As you can see, in both cases the XPQuery<T> has translated the query code into our query language, which in turn gets executed on the server. This is really the whole point of LINQ to XPO - bridging from LINQ syntax and extensions into the XPO world, where our database independent querying system can then execute the query efficiently on the server.

    Now here's something that doesn't work:

    var result =
    from artist in query
    select artist;


    Why not? Because the system can't guess what it is that makes one Artist different from another. Of course there's the primary key, but I don't need Distinct for that one. All other distinctions are much more complex to describe, so Microsoft introduced another overload of the Distinct method:

    public static IQueryable Distinct(
    this IQueryable source, IEqualityComparer comparer);

    This one takes a parameter for an IEqualityComparer implementation, and of course that interface allows me to specify precisely when a certain object is to be regarded equal to another object. However, this overload is not support by XPO, and will likely never be supported.

    There are two reasons for that. First, Microsoft decided to have this method take an interface as a parameter, not a lambda expression, like most of the other LINQ extension methods do. Of course we could create an overload ourselves that takes a lambda expression, but that brings us to reason number two: the code that determines equality is likely to be so complex that translating it into something that would run on the server would be impossible in the majority of cases. I don't know if reason two is perhaps also the source of reason one, but it seems likely.

    There's one easy way to use this overload of Distinct with XPO: simply make sure to use Enumerable.Distinct, pass in your IEqualityComparer and suddenly everything works. How does it work? Very simple: the data is retrieved from the server and Distinct runs over the client-side results, where the comparer code can be executed. We could have made this happen by default in the cases where translation isn't possible, but we decided it would be safer not to do that. So it's left to you to be explicit about this if your intention is to get Distinct executed client-side. Here's how that works (for example - there are many different ways of making IEqualityComparer work for you):

    // This is bad!!! Just an example. This results in Elton John
    // and Procol Harum being equals.
    class Comparer : EqualityComparer {
    public override bool Equals(Artist x, Artist y) {
    return GetHashCode(x) == GetHashCode(y);

    public override int GetHashCode(Artist obj) {
    if (obj.Name == "Elton John" || obj.Name == "Procol Harum")
    return 734;
    return obj.GetHashCode( );


    var result =
    from artist in new XPQuery(uow)
    select artist;

    ObjectDumper.Write(((IEnumerable) result).Distinct(new Comparer( )));

    The cast to IEnumerable<Artist> makes sure that the Distinct extension method is taken from the Enumerable class (because it's declared as an extension on IEnumerable<T>). Of course there are other ways - you could call ToList() on the result before calling Distinct, or call Enumerable.Distinct without using the extension method syntax.

  • Four new Knowledge Base articles on eXpress Persistent Objects

    During the last few weeks I've had some time to kill so I decided to fill up our Knowledge Base with new material on eXpress Persistent Object (XPO). For me, this product can be thought of like an iceberg: At its surface, one sees only a small portion of what's hiding underneath. With XPO, you need to know very little about the product to create your first application. But by digging a bit deeper you'll uncover many new aspects of the product and hopefully appreciate its strengths and power, and feel even more confident to place it as the foundation of your data-aware applications.

    So, enough with the metaphors...here are a few articles to help you dig deeper into XPO in many unique ways:

    How to use XPO in an ASP.NET (Web) application

    Getting started with XPO development for Compact devices

    How to create a criterion, which returns an intersection of two many-to-many sets

    How to implement self-referenced persistent objects, and to display these objects within the XtraTreeList


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